Friday, June 12, 2009

Exploring the History of Criminology

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Exploring the History of Criminology

To many people interested in the roots and origin of Criminology, Lombroso is considered to be the father of the science, meaning that he explored it and examined it from many angles in order to expose it. It was first used by a law professor in Italy, Raffaele Garofalo, who actually used the Italian term for the word, criminologia. A French anthropologist also used the term around the same time as Garofalo, who referred to the term as criminology. There are some who believe that it is possible that the study of bumps on an individual’s skull, referred to as Phrenology, is a better mark of representation when it comes to the scientific origins of the term. Lombroso is considered to be the father of criminology because of the many advances that he attempted to make in the field. If not for him, criminology might not be as developed as it is today.

Over time, many different theories were composed as to what caused criminal behavior. These theories have their roots in biology, psychology, and society, to name a few. Over time, by using these foundations for new theories, different schools of thought began to emerge. Through these different schools of thought, the theoretical science of the criminal element could be rationalized. Individuals often debate in order to attempt to define the reason for crime, so that it may then be eliminated by solving the problem of what causes crime. By identifying and responding to the motivator for crime and deviant behavior, more effective measures of social control could be put into action. Currently, we are able to take care of the symptoms of crime. For example, we have police officers who catch criminals. When found guilty by a panel of their own peers, the criminal will go to jail. That takes the criminal out of society. However, there are new criminals emerging every day. We have learned to treat the symptoms, the individual criminals, but we have not yet been able to determine the instigating factor in these developments.

Throughout the history of criminology, this is the main goal of the science. Since it is a theoretical science, all of the theories that correspond to the topic cannot immediately be proven as accurate or inaccurate, merely theoretical. However, the continuous effort of individuals to idealize the workings of the individual and society have been transformed and re-defined since the beginning use of the term. If the history of criminology shows us anything, it is that the human nature to establish right from wrong and the differences between individuals distinguishing the difference is virtually a timeless theme, at least since its birth. By continuously researching and documenting the variables and changes within society and crime, people who are interested in criminology can line up the theories with the established facts. After this is done, it is possible to sit down and analyze the coinciding factors in order to determine the best course of action when it comes to evolving society so as to limit crime and intolerance as much as possible.

Exploring the Many Available Jobs in Criminology

With a criminology degree, there are a number of career paths available for the individual. Individuals that have just graduated are likely to get involved in these particular careers. These are some of the more flexible career fields when it comes to individuals who are educated by whom may not have the experience that some other employment offices may desire. In addition, these jobs are interesting and allow the individual to learn and explore aspects that they were not able to while in school. The hands on experience will help the graduate in many ways later on in their careers as well as at the time of their employment. One of these exciting careers is in the field of crime intelligence analysis. This is a very interesting field for individuals that are looking to have experience when it comes to deciphering the foundation of crimes.

Some other creative careers when it comes to criminology employment opportunities would go on to include consumer advocates, who work with laws and regulations that would either benefit or protect the average consumer from the manufacturers or corporations, environment protection analysts, who help to formulate different regulations when it comes to the environment and the protection that it can receive from the public and community members at large, and a regional crime prevention coordinator, who would be in charge of coming up with different methods in which to protect the residents in a region of the state. This is a position that would also help to come up with ways in which the community crime prevention members would be organized and structured in order to provide a more effective and efficient crime task force within the region. As a result, this career is very important when it comes to preventing crime within the region by understanding some of the underlying pressures and structures of the criminal element within the society or culture.

One of the most obvious career opportunities that exists for individuals that graduate with a criminology degree would be that of those who go on to become police officers. This can extend into other fields of the police department including detectives and criminal psychologists on the payroll of the police department. In this area, many people are able to come together in order to look at how society and crime interacts on an intimate level.

The crimes that take place are not looked at and analyzed in order to come up with ways to prevent the crime in the area, rather the police force is able to catch the criminals and hopefully take them out of the society in which they were raised or committing the crimes. In some cases, the police officers are able to work and interact with the regional crime coordinator, in order to create a more solidified union of crime prevention within the region, city or town. There are some other cases in which the police officers will interact with community correction officers, either because they are employed in jails where the criminals are required to serve their time or as parole or probation officers who are able to readjust the criminal to the society in which they live or to make sure that they are not violating any rules or restrictions that have been placed on them.

How to come Up with Successful Thesis Ideas Papers on Criminology

Throughout the course of the pursuit of criminology degrees, there are many times during which students will be required to write a thesis paper in their criminology classes, and they will not be given a list of options from their professors. When faced with this challenge, some students may not be aware of how to approach the paper with a concrete and effective thesis idea. If this happens, it can be helpful to approach the theoretical study of criminology from a new perspective and see if a thesis can be created in this manner. By outlining the theories that build themselves within the structure of criminology an individual can more clearly see how the theories and the science are connected. In the end, this will help many people to understand the specifics of successful and intelligent thesis ideas.

Even within certain categories and theories there are different segments of individuals. For example, within the feminist theorists that involve criminology there are radical feminists and libertarian feminists. Some effective thesis ideas for criminology could focus on either breaking down the structural supports of these theories, or in support of the theories. By exploring the flaws and strengths of theories, we can come closer to accurately understanding the relationship between crime and the individual. As we get closer to this point, it will be possible to eventually try to change criminology from being a theoretical science to a more concrete form of science in relation to individuals and the societies in which they live.

Another way in which an individual can come up with ideas for their criminology papers would be to examine the history of criminology and how it evolved rapidly once it was created. However, the term itself was not put in place until the 1800’s, which could cause some to speculate as to why this was the case. There are some instances in which a student can explore the reality of whether or not these beginning criminology experts were really the individuals to herald in this concept to the world. History is full of examples throughout which criminology aspects and ideas may be implied.

Criminology papers, unlike papers for some other classes that the student may need to write, will likely not be able to scientifically prove a point. This is why it is so important for the student to support their thesis and idea. Even if an idea is farfetched, if there is compelling evidence to support the ideas then it can be considered to be a success. Support is the most important aspect of papers that attempt to dissect or discuss criminology. Without material to back up one’s own ideas when it comes to theories and criminology beliefs, then there is nothing to support what the individual is saying and it cannot be believed since there is no proof of the idea. However, with a substantial amount of information that would help to support the thesis of the paper it will be taken much more seriously when it is read by critics and supporters as well.

Experiencing the Parallels between Victimology and Criminology

All too often, society is inclined to allow criminals to receive leniency for their crimes as a result of the environment in which a person may have existed. Even if the criminal was not influenced by their environment to commit the crime, the criminal is liable to adopt the persona of the victim in order to gain sympathy. This is often successful because when more well-off individuals are in the presence of those that are considered to be less fortunate, they may feel guilt. In many cases, this guilt is not necessary. However, if an individual begins to express their opinion that by adopting the role of a victim the criminal is dodging the responsibility of the crime, they will likely be criticized greatly for their thoughts.

Victimology, even if it is sincere, is often a way in which individuals justify a crime to themselves and to others. For example, one of the most commonly held beliefs within the United States of America is that of the great American dream, in which everyone is happy, living in a nice house and the parents have stable occupations making a comfortable living for their families. This does not at all reflect the reality of inner city slums and poor rural areas. By clinging to the belief that no matter what, even without trying in some cases, individuals deserve to experience the American dream, they may be inclined to take what they feel they deserve rather than try to work for it. Some people will rationalize that they have no means to work for this dream, and they had no choice but to act out in the way that they did. However, this blaming of society does not change the reality of the situations. By allowing one person to get away with a crime because of a victim mentality would be a slap in the face to the people that do work to succeed.

Herein lays the most important parallel between victimology and Criminology. While it is simple to blame society for one’s troubles, this does not begin to solve the problem. Individuals from all sides need to think about how the society may impact the role of the criminal and to take steps in order to change things. This way, when an individual tries to adopt a victim mentality, we can state as a society that there were other options. By outlining the different options in such a setting, even more people can be exposed to the ways in which society is working to stabilize equality between different categories of individuals and work to reduce crime as a product of environment or surroundings. Criminology works to examine how society and the criminal interact, and this needs to be looked at under extreme scrutiny in order to find the causes of problems and work towards successful solutions.

There are also instances in which those who are perceived to be in a seat of power will become corrupt. It is important to look at this too. Individuals may attempt to adopt a victim role in this scene as well in order to appeal to the sympathetic public. Aside from sociopaths, individuals have moral standards that will tell them what is wrong and what is right. For anyone to adopt the role of the victim in order to gain sympathy is a ploy against the considerate nature of others. When it comes to crime, the people that should be playing the role of the victim are those who were victimized during the act of the crime. For individuals that live, they are many times much stronger than people may have believed them to be, and it is nauseating that the criminal will then try to adopt a role that the person they violated will not even take on in the court room.

Exploring the Basics of Postmodern Criminology

One of the most current theories to be designed within the science of criminology would be those that adhere to the postmodern perspective. When it comes to postmodern criminology, one of the most basic beliefs and supposititious is that not only is crime the result of the social interactions in an area, which is the foundation of most conflict theories in criminology, but also that the social context will play a part on the outcome of a situation as well. This extends on the conflict theories that were created, which suggest that the criminal is responsible for his or her own actions, and that the deviant behavior of the individual is what caused them to go against the social norms that have been established by the ruling government. By expanding upon theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the society at large.

Postmodern criminology supporters will look at a crime or criminal action and will go on to ask a very important question. Was the crime a result of the environment that exists in the society where the crime was committed? By identifying whether or not the culture was responsible for the crime or not, it is possible to learn more concretely how different instances in an individual’s life will affect them. In some cases, individuals are forced to go against the normal responses to particular situations. There are many times in which an individual may have to kill another person, and while this type of violence is rarely enjoyed, it can be a last resort for certain people. A good example of this having occurred would be to look at an instance in which a policeman had to shoot a suspect in order to save the lives of many innocent people in the immediate area. The individual policeman cannot be said to be inherently criminal or deviant, because if the shooting is justified than he had no other reaction. Even if another reaction could have occurred, it may not have been as successful, beneficial or helpful to the individuals that were also involved in the situation. In making the decision to stop the shooter in the illustrated situation, the policeman stepped beyond the ordinarily imposed social norms that would define murder. Instead, he is more likely to be seen as providing a service to the individuals that were being threatened in the situation.

By building and rebuilding social contexts and responses, as a whole we can work together to create a better society. Within a better society, there will be less criminal elements to distract the public. This is because the responses that we develop will be more likely to benefit others in addition to ourselves in an honest form. When the society is more stable and healthy the criminal element will not be as prevalent, which is one of the important building blocks of postmodern criminology theories.

Examining the Lyrics to RaeKwon Criminology

There are many instances of violence that are portrayed to an almost grandiose manner in rap songs, and the RaeKwon Criminology lyrics are no different. Made up of several segments of lyrics, this rap song takes place almost as if on stage as a discussion between two people. It opens up with a conversation between two individuals in just this manner, before it goes into the song itself. In the opening dialogue, two men are arguing and in the middle of a verbal debate that sounds as if it is about to turn violent and physical, with the ending line being “You wanna go to war?” This makes it very clear what the intentions of the men are.

They want to be aggressive and violent in the face of the person that they believe is holding them back or taking advantage of them. There are names that are said which would help to call attention to the racial tension that may exist between the two men, which is explored in more detail throughout the other segments of the song.

In the first stanza of the song, the individual that is talking seems to be building himself up and calling attention to his ability to outmaneuver those who would try to capture him or stop him from succeeding in whatever it is that he wants to do. “Then I react, like a convict, and start killin” is a line that is particularly indicative of the nature of the individual. They are adopting the mentality of that which they have experienced through their formidable years.

The rest of the dialogue continues to illustrate the points of pride for the speaker which he finds in himself, as he also tries to play off any sense of responsibility or morality that may have otherwise existed in the situation had his position been filled by someone else who was not as “sparkin and bustin” as the narrator is. Because of his abilities, he considers himself to be successful and hardcore to some degree.

The next portion of the song is a response. In speaking to the first person, this new speaker is trying to maintain that he has not only more ability than the first speaker, but also that he has more street credibility, which is almost more important. He wants to toast with the first speaker, but he also calls attention to the fact that he has shot many people and watched them bleed. Nowhere in his discussion of these events does he seem to be apologetic for what he has done, and indeed he seems to react as if the people who went through this deserved this kind of treatment. Instead of listening to these lyrics and perpetuating this type of violence between individuals who are trying to be more “tough” or “street” than anyone else, as a society individuals need to look at what it is that supports these kinds of thoughts and desires. By understanding what it is that individuals are trying to accomplish through this violence, perhaps we can come up with different ways to achieve the same feelings of worthiness and respect.

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A Look at Recent Paradigms in Criminology

In the Oxford Handbook of Criminology, there is a chapter in the book that was written by Jock Young. This chapter is entitled “Recent Paradigms in Criminology”. This piece of work is used by many people in order to take a critical look at criminology and the ways in which crime is affected by society and other influences. There is a particular influence that is placed on the society in which a crime takes place. In some areas the structure and organization which supports crime and the criminals, while in other areas there is more of an emphasis that is placed on the disorganization of society as a major factor in the perpetuation of crime in the area. In order to limit crime, it is important that individuals within a society put forth the effort to understand what it is that causes crime and the release of the criminal element into the culture or society.

Jock Young’s chapter is a very important piece of the Oxford Handbook of Criminology. In many ways the entire books is an fundamental theory compellation for the United Kingdom, but Young’s chapter of recent paradigms in criminology helps readers and academics understand the new ways in which crime has changed or evolved over time. In addition, there are a number of ways in which differences in society and culture have shaped the ways in which individuals view the criminal elements in their society and the types of crimes that may take place within the region.

Many things may help to bring forth a deviant behavior from a particular individual, but many people are interested in learning how these elements may incite one person to commit a crime, while another person may experience those same elements and have no inclination to act out with deviant behavior against the society in which they are located.

In addition, it can be very helpful and effective for individuals to look at different individualizing factors. Some of these factors include the gender of a person, their age and their social class. These things may not initially seem to have an effect on criminology and the crimes that take place in an area, but the science of criminology has roots that incorporate these differences in important ways. Some people believe that there are a number of instances in which the gender of a person is ignored when it comes to crimes and criminology.

There are a number of instances in which the male perspective in applied to all accounts of crime, regardless of whether or not the crime was committed by a male or a female criminal. Because of this, it is important for us to step back and look at the aspects to consider in order to accurately formulate theories in the field of criminology that are better and more complete. Jock Young is able to show many different ways in which this can be done by looking at new paradigms in Criminology that can be used by individuals who are interested in developing new theories and ideas.

ReThinking Criminology Jock Young

Jock Young is a very important theorist when it comes to criminology. He has been able to contribute in a variety of different ways when it comes to how we are able to define crime as a society and what the sociological elements may be when it comes to the criminal element in a region. Many of his papers have been published in different books and journals. From there, his work has been able to influence the thinking and direction of other criminologists’ theories and ideas. For the most part, his work has always been about pushing forward with ideas and theories in order to determine the roots of crime and how to eliminate the criminal element from societies.

This is important because it would lead to the general well-being of a particular area, while individuals would be able to relax and not worry or stress about the level of crime or violence in the area. Criminology, and Jock Young, revolves around the study of how crime is created and how it interacts with society. So far, we have not been able to determine a direct cause of crime. In order to make sure that we do, criminology constantly needs to be re-addressed and thought about from different angles in order to ensure that we are one day able to come to the correct and proper conclusions that would allow our societies to operate in a more effective and efficient manner, free of violent crime.

Different perspectives need to be used when viewing criminology in order to keep the approached to the science fresh and always evolving. In many cases, there are a number of approaches that need to be redefined in order to make them more applicable to different societies. It is also important that individuals who study criminology do not neglect cultural or societal differences between cultures and the crime that takes place in the area that is being studied.

While one theory may work in a specific geographical area, there are different cultural and societal aspects that may make the theory null and void in another geographic location, even if the crimes are similar in both areas. Criminology needs to be rethought when looking at different societies in order to make sure that there are the proper distinctions placed on the culture of the crime scene. Some other factors that may be important when looking at the ways in which the criminal element and the culture or society interacts would be in regards to gender, age and the type of crime that is being committed. These may seem like variables in the science of studying crime and society, but there are many reasons to believe that these differences may formulate completely different outcomes as a result.

In addition, there are some people that believe it would be more applicable to look at how a person maintains a non-deviant lifestyle as opposed to how a person might become a criminal. These are just some of the ways in which it can help to readdress criminology and crime in order to come to different conclusions about how we interact and function within the world when it comes to morals and non-deviant living.

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What is Criminology?

When people look into criminology, they may initially be surprised by how expansive the field is. Anyone that is at all associated with the scientific study of crime, the relationship between the criminal and his or her environment, and society’s reaction to crime would have some sort of placement within the scene of Criminology. In some instances, criminologists are researchers that are trying to find the common links between deviant behavior and the environment, in order to try to pinpoint what it is that causes or perpetuates crime.

There are currently a number of different theories that attempt to explain, through the process of science, what it is that causes a crime to take place. These theories began to emerge in earnest in the middle of the 1800’s. Over the course of the next 200 or so years, new theories began to spring up and eventually they began to involve genetics, hormones and biological makeup. Previously, theories of criminology rested heavily on society and the environment’s effect on the individual as a source to either push an individual into crime or away from crime.

There are three distinct schools of thought when it comes to criminology. One of the first schools of thought, the Classical school believes that utilitarian philosophy is the supporting notion of criminology. They argue that individuals have free will and can decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong. The hedonistic, or self-indulgent, side of the body must be balanced against the rational of the individual. When the hedonistic side wins, crime may ensue. Rational is the side of the individual that would consider the penalty of the crime and, if the punishment is severe enough, is believed to be the piece of the individual that would keep them from crime by looking at the costs. Positivists are those who believe that the factors that contribute to the criminal’s propensity to go against the law do not rest within their own control. Rather, elements such as society or the person’s chemical makeup do.

These are things that are considered to be outside the control of the individual, but are still things that may play what Positivists claim as the biggest part of the responsibility when a criminal has committed a crime. In the Chicago school of thought, individuals believe that criminals are a result of the disorganized environments from which they come. Later, this definition was extended to include the belief that older generations taught younger generations about the role of crime. It is then fair to say that these individuals believe that crime is a social occurrence only where the social makeup of the area is broken down and unequal.

Crime is often considered to be a blemish when it comes to the society of an area. It causes people to fear when they should not have to. Criminologists are, in their own way, attempting to determine what causes a crime or instigates that type of behavior in a person in order to limit the amount of crime that takes place.

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